Products And – Or Services – Defining "Service-Oriented" Products and the Related Role of Technology

The economy can be analyzed using both market-driven and production-driven approaches to industry classification. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) uses a market-driven approach; the older Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) uses a production-driven approach.

Under a market-driven approach, the economy comprises goods-producing and service-providing industries. Goods-producing industries include: natural resources and mining, construction, and manufacturing; service-providing industries include: wholesale and retail trade, transportation (and warehousing), utilities, information, financial activities, professional and business services, education and health services, leisure and hospitality, and public administration.

Under a production-driven approach, the economy comprises product-driven and service-driven industries. Product-driven industries comprise enterprises that manage inventories available for sale as primary activities (regardless of whether they transform them or not). Under this approach, the retail, wholesale, and food service industries are product-driven. (The kitchens of food service providers are equivalent to factories.) Product-driven enterprises may have extensive cost accounting and operations practices for inventory management.

Industry classifications can be applied to an enterprise as a whole (the primary industry), and to the establishments within it, which may be in differing secondary industries. Establishments are facilities that include plants (factories and warehouses) and branches (retail and wholesale outlets).

For example, the hospitality industry is service-driven; under the production-driven approach, the bar and restaurant establishments within a hotel are product-driven. The entertainment industry is service-driven; under the production-driven approach, the retail and bar establishments within a theater are product-driven. The health care industry is service-driven; under the production-driven approach, the retail pharmacy establishment within a hospital is product-driven. Under the market-driven approach, all of these establishments are service-providing.

For example, a manufacturing enterprise is goods-producing under a market-driven approach, and product-driven under a production-driven approach. If it also operates a retail delivery system, the stores are service-providers under a market-driven approach, and are product-driven under a production-driven approach. If all sales revenue is sourced from its own products, the enterprise is in two primary industries. However, if forced to decide, its selection should be based upon core competencies – activities that it performs well. The enterprise can be divided into two separate business units: manufacturing and merchandising. The merchandising unit is an internal customer of the manufacturing unit. However, depending on strategy and policy, the manufacturing unit could sell products to wholesalers and other retailers, and the merchandising unit could buy products from other manufacturers and wholesalers. Under a market-driven approach, the manufacturing unit is goods-producing and the merchandising unit is service-providing, whereas under the production-driven approach, the merchandising unit is product-driven.

The make-up of the economy changes overtime as newer industries emerge and grow and older industries mature and decline. For example, the manufacturing industry is shifting from vertically integrated to strategically outsourced. Strategic outsourcers may manufacture specialized components and assemble finished products. However, by outsourcing the manufacturing of utility components to specialty scale manufacturers, strategic outsourcers can lower their production costs.

Biotechnology and nanotechnology are emerging industries. The information industries are growing as technology becomes more ubiquitous, and as knowledge is packaged in digital products. Knowledge is information that has been learned and retained. In the future, knowledge will be retained extensively in electronic form.

Products and services…

The term “product” is associated with something that is tangible – the resulting inventory from agricultural, mining and drilling, construction, and manufacturing activities. Outputs are either end-products, or components that are assembled into end-products in downstream processes within the enterprise or in its customers.

The term “service” is associated with something that is intangible – capabilities either delivered at the point or time of sale, or shortly thereafter, or as a supporting service. Supporting services can be purchased at the time of sale for downstream use, or later, and consist of such items as warranties beyond those bundled with the product, preventive maintenance, and routine cleaning and repairs.

Functions and features of products are easier to discern than those of services, which are event or activity driven, and may occur in the future.

The term “time of sale” means when a contractual or non-contractual agreement between a buyer and a seller is made, and does not necessarily mean when revenue is recognized and earned. Revenue is recognized and earned according to the accounting principles that fit the service offering, which may be over a period of time.

A commodity is a product or service that is indistinguishable and interchangeable with another of the same type because there is little to no value added. Many commodities are natural, such as produce, minerals, oil, and gas. Services can be commoditized too. The distinguishing factors of a commodity provider include convenience, quality of service, and price.

Product-driven enterprises also offer delivery and supporting services. Delivery services include arranging for transportation, dealer preparation, training, and gift wrapping. Supporting services include cleaning, repairs, and maintenance. To remain competitive over time, enterprises have to add services with their product offerings that exceed customer expectations. However, if customers require such services, then they must become part of the basic offerings. For example, bathroom facilities and color TV are included in modern hotel rooms, even though the primary purpose is providing a place to sleep.

Although services are intangible, their effects are not. Transportation services move people, cleaning services remove dirt and stains, and repair services restore items to working order. Services require facilities, equipment, and supplies that are bundled in. When products are bundled in, the enterprise pays sales or use tax, if applicable; when products are sold with services, the customer usually pays sales or use tax, if applicable.

Service-driven enterprises can produce tangible deliverables. For example, dry cleaners produce clean and pressed clothes; professional service firms, such as architects, accountants, attorneys, and consultants produce reports; and engineers produce design drawings that can be transformed into facilities, equipment, or other tangible products.

The recording and movie industries employ technologies that can capture sound and pictures. Starting in laboratories, these industries transform science into art. Hence, live entertainment performances (services) can be transformed into recorded products. As a consequence, an event or activity can be reproduced, duplicated, distributed, and repeated to the public-at-large indefinitely. Digital products are impacting traditional manufacturing, distribution, and consumer buying behaviors, and placing intermediaries at risk.

Process control and information technologies have enabled seamless integration between designers and manufacturers. The “design-to-construction” process becomes ubiquitous as computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies (CAD/CAM) enable a designer in one location to transmit specifications to manufacturers in others. The designs are virtual, and result in instructions that control manufacturing equipment in both local and remote locations. As a consequence, manufacturing can be outsourced strategically to any manufacturer that can accept electronic designs anywhere at any time. Because the process is seamless, the precision is higher.

As more enterprises adopt the design-to-construction model, dramatic changes will occur in the structure of industries. For example, in the publishing industry, books can be printed on demand from electronic files upon receipt of orders placed over the internet, eliminating the need for physical inventory available for sale at printers, publishers, and bookstores. The electronic files represent a virtual finished goods inventory from which physical products can be made when necessary. As a consequence, inventory carrying costs are lower.

Both product-driven and service-driven industries render service from centers that receive inbound and place outbound service and telemarketing calls. Call center activities can be outsourced in a similar fashion to manufacturing.

The notion of strategic outsourcing can be applied to almost every function in an enterprise provided intellectual property is protected. However, although management consultants may be used in the development of strategy, the ultimate responsibility for planning, deployment, execution, and performance remains in-house with the governance function.

Products and/or services…

The term “products and/or services” describes collectively all types of products and services.

Service-driven industries are evolving into providers of both “product-oriented” and “service-oriented” services. In order to differentiate product-oriented services from the delivery and supporting services, the term “service-oriented” products provides more clarity. Service-oriented products must be definable, duplicable, and repeatable. They are intangible outputs of processes that are represented by tangible items, packaged in a definable form. Technology plays a major role in the delivery through hardware, software, and both voice and data telecommunications. “Hard” products are tangible and “soft” products are intangible.

For example, traditional land phone line services were offerings with few differentiating features, primarily in the style of equipment. As the telephone system migrated from electro-mechanical to electronic, the offerings were transformed into service-oriented products with features such as call forwarding, caller identification, call waiting, and voice mail. Cell phone offerings are service-oriented products with more extensive functions and features than land lines. Cell phone service-oriented products have cameras built-in, and have delivery and supporting services bundled in such as account information, internet access, and application software for calculators, calendars, contact information, notes, games, music, pictures and movies. Cell phone and computer technologies are converging.

In the financial and business and professional services industries, service-oriented products are packaged with such items as accounts, agreements, brochures, contracts, databases, documents, equipment, facilities, policies, procedures, and statements.

In the leisure and hospitality industries, service-oriented products such as flights, hotel rooms, car rentals, and limousine services are packaged with facilities, equipment, and supplies. The types of facilities and equipment define specific offerings. For example, an Airbus A380 renders a different experience from a Douglas DC3 even though the principal service is the same: providing air transportation. A hotel room with a view of the ocean renders a different experience from one with no windows at all, even though the principal service is the same: providing accommodation. The quality of the accoutrements such as blankets, pillows, towels, newspapers, cable TV, internet access, and fruit baskets can affect the overall experience. A Cadillac renders a different experience from a Chevrolet, even through the principal service is the same: providing a rental car to drive, or a limousine.

Travel-related service-providers bundle air, hotel, car rental, and limousine services into packages to make the buying decisions easier for consumers. Event planners bundle travel-related services with conference and convention services for enterprises.

Consumables, durables, and facilities…

Manufactured products consist consumables and durables.

Consumables are products change or wear out as they are used and comprise food, clothing, personal care, health care, household supply, and office supply items. Media such as books, records, audio and video CDs, and DVDs are classed as consumables – the intellectual property is worth far more than the media.

Durables are long lasting equipment items such as appliances, furniture, and vehicles.

Digital products may involve no media if they delivered electronically other than the server of the publisher and the electronic device of the user.

Facilities are the outputs of construction activities and are made of durable materials.

Contractual or non-contractual products and/or services…

Agreements are contractual or non-contractual based depending upon the type of offering, and the nature of the relationship between buyers and sellers.

Consumable products can be sold with the right to return for exchange or refund within a certain period of time. Durable products can be sold with agreements that define warranties and maintenance.

Service-oriented products and services can be sold with agreements that specify exactly what is to be delivered and when, with procedures for reporting problems or complaints.

In negotiations, discussions should embrace the specific functions and features of hard and soft products, and the delivery and supporting services. Experienced negotiators pay attention to both the tangibles and intangibles because the total cost of ownership comprises both.

Digital-construction and digital-manufacturing…

As technology continues to develop, service-oriented products will become more common because it makes intangible items definable. New knowledge-based industries will emerge.

The reproduction of software on physical media is classified as goods-producing, and all other development and publishing activities are classified as service-providing under NAICS. However, software and other digital products are durable because they can last indefinitely, even if they have to be transferred among storage media. Software products are developed by service-providers such as business and professional services firms, publishers, and “in-house” developers. Nevertheless, software development activities require the project management disciplines of goods-producing industries, such as construction and manufacturing, to be successful.

The “digital-construction” and “digital-manufacturing” industries are evolving: digital construction delivers software; digital manufacturing delivers soft service-oriented, information, and knowledge-based products. However, through CAD/CAM processes, software delivers hard products too. In the future, almost all hard and soft products will result from digital-construction and digital-manufacturing processes.

Defining product and/or services is an enterpriship (entrepreneurship, leadership, and management) competency.

Simple Rules For Personal Health and Hygiene

Have you been following a plan for your own personal hygiene, or do you get up in the morning, take a bath, brush and blow dry your hair, use the bathroom through the day, and go to bed at night? If you only do the latter, you need to put more planning and preparation into your personal care and grooming.

Cleanliness is seen nowadays as next to Godliness, and neglect of your own personal hygiene may cause health and social problems of which you are not even aware. Bad breath, for example, is a common problem–the perpetrator is often accused of it, but he or she may not be attending to it. Problems such as dandruff are forgivable, but good looks are usually the result of great care and attention paid to personal grooming. You should put some time and effort into it if you want to feel and look your best every day.

All external parts of the body need time and attention. Below is a partial list of the body parts which you should be taking care of with your grooming plan. Here are some tips as to how to attend to your most common and ordinary daily grooming needs.

HAIR

First of all, keep your hair at a length and style which you can properly maintain in a cleanly manner at all times. Wash your crowning glory at least twice per week, using a mild shampoo devoid of borax or alkalis. It is not a good idea to use soap, as it can leave a fine film of stickiness in your hair. Shampoo is meant to wash totally out of your hair. Be sure and carefully towel dry your hair after you wash it, and be cautious with the blow dryer. You don’t want your hair to become too dry and brittle. Especially if you have long or thick hair, brush it three to four times per day, using a soft bristled brush or wide toothed comb. Be sure to wash your hair grooming tools every time you wash your hair. And oil your scalp with grooming oil once per week, preferably one hour before you wash it. A hot oil treatment is fine–if you know exactly what you are doing.

Hair coloring or dye is not recommended, as no current dyes have been found to be completely safe for long term use. They contain chemicals which can seep into your scalp and even cause premature hair loss. So we recommend not using hair dye if possible. Also, try not to wear a hat for a very long period of time. Wearing hats has also been shown to cause premature hair loss. Redheads need to be particularly concerned, as they are subject to early hair loss.

SKIN

A good bath once or twice per day is essential for cleanliness and good grooming. You should always bathe after any strenuous physical activity. Mild soaps are best, and you don’t need to use a germicidal or antiseptic soap unless you have a medical or “smelliness” problem. Bath brushes, bath sponges, and mildly abrasive scrubbers are recommended. You must also pay special attention to your genitals and anal area, as lack of care paid to these can lead to serious infections–as well as an inadequate sex life. Rinse yourself thoroughly after washing, and be sure to use a dry and clean towel to properly dry yourself. Don’t ever share towels, try not to share bathing equipment, and wash all of your equipment after each bath. Putting a teaspoonful of bleach in one gallon of warm water, rinse your bathing equipment in the water, and then under warm running water. And always change into completely clean underwear after each bath.

It’s good to use a fine organic moisturizing oil or cream every day, especially as you get older. Put it on at night to avoid that sticky feeling, and so as to not attract dust and filmy dirt throughout the day.

TEETH

Brush your teeth two to three times every day, or after meals or snacks as needed. It’s important especially to brush right before bedtime. Pay attention to getting rid of the food particles stuck between your teeth. Flossing is highly recommended over toothpicks for this. You only need about a pea sized dab of toothpaste on your toothbrush. When brushing, brush down on the upper teeth and brush up on the lower teeth, using a circular motion. Also, brush the inner as well as the outer surface of your teeth, and before you brush each time, carefully brush your tongue.

Your toothbrush should never be shared with anyone. It should have resilient bristles, and it should be well rinsed and left somewhere completely sanitary to dry after each usage. Try to use organic toothpaste, one that’s completely safe and free of harsh abrasives or strong antiseptics. Baking soda has been found to be a very effective substitute for toothpaste, if you don’t mind its strong flavor.

HANDS

You should always be washing your hands. There’s no such thing as too often. Use a good hand cream if they become dry. Pay attention to your fingernails when you wash your hands. A good nail brush placed near your bathroom sink is a sound investment. Use soap every time you wash, and always wash before and after meals–and after you go to the bathroom. Many infections such as E. coli are caused every day by people who don’t wash their hands after going to the bathroom. You should also keep washing your hands while preparing meals.

NAILS

Your fingernails completely replace themselves every five to six months. You need to keep them well trimmed, and preferably buffed and polished too. Men can buff their nails and use a nail shining tool instead of polish to give their nails a healthy glow. Women may of course polish their nails with beautiful colors, which can hide the discoloration that comes with age. Clip your nails to the length you want them, but don’t ever trim too close to the skin. If your nails chip easily, consider adding more protein to your diet, as finger and toenails are all made of protein. Eating gelatin can work for this.

Very brittle, highly yellow or discolored nails can be a sign of a serious health problem. Please see your doctor immediately if you have this. Also, do not always keep your nails painted with polish. This can lead to stripping of the natural keratin of the nails. Also, either go out or give yourself a home manicure and a pedicure once every couple of weeks. Be sure and buy a very good manicure kit for this purpose.

FEET

Many people take no care whatsoever of their own feet, usually to their detriment. Always keep your toenails clipped, shaping the nails but not cutting too close to the skin. Always give your feet a good scrubbing with a pumice stone or mildly abrasive brush when taking a bath, and before you put on your socks, dry carefully between your toes. Try wearing a clean pair of cotton socks every day; this will pamper your feet and keep them dry and not smelly. Powder your feet after you take a bath. Try not to wear the same pair of shoes every day, and alternate wearing your shoe pairs. And make sure you wear comfortable shoes. Comfort and safety should come before stylishness. High heels can lead to the shortening of important calf muscles.

DEODORANT

Your underarms don’t emit an odor until you hit your preteens. That’s when your apocrine glands, which are located under your arms and around your genitals, begin to function, producing a milky, oily type of perspiration. Bacteria then thrive in this sweat, causing the familiar underarm odor.

To control strong odor, you can wash daily with an antibacterial soap such as Lever 2000. You should always wear clean clothes that are free of staining and sweat. Use a deodorant that is also an antiperspirant, which will dry up moisture in the armpits. Cut back on your caffeine intake-it puts your apocrine glands into overdrive. After a bath, dust yourself liberally with a fine talcum powder. Always drink plenty of water, both to flush your system of toxins and to regulate your bowels. This alone may end some problems you may have with “smelliness.”

TANNING

Getting a “healthy tan” is not considered to be healthy anymore. Now doctors are telling us that you shouldn’t mind your pale skin. Skin cancer, which is often deadly, is not a fair trade for good looks. When sunning, protect your fair skin with an at least SPF 30 sunscreen lotion. Keep your skin oiled and moisturized during the summer, and don’t bother with the “bronze look.”

BODY HAIR

Around puberty, your hair follicles respond to hormones raging in your body. You can end up with hair around your belly button, on your back, near your breasts and for both women and men, on your upper lip. If it’s especially coarse, show your doctor, as you may have a treatable hormonal imbalance. Some such “peach fuzz” is normal for girls, and if it seems unsightly to you, you can try bleaching or removing it. Nair is known to be a gentle permanent hair remover.

I hope you found these simple rules to be helpful to you. If you follow your own careful grooming and personal care plan, you will feel better, look more attractive, and probably live a longer, happier and more fulfilling life.

Health Benefits Of Truffles

Although truffles are very costly, there are now many more reasons to eat it apart from the truth that it is very exciting to eat a delicacy. One of these reasons is you are consuming truffles because these may bring you health benefits.

Through the years, contentions have been hounding the health benefits and nutritional value of truffles and mushrooms, generally. People say that edible mushrooms like truffles have no nutritional value at all and these are used just to add flavor to a selection of staple dishes.

Yet, more recent reports show that truffles and various sorts of mushrooms can bring a great deal of health benefits especially to vegetarians, individuals who don’t eat meat and only consume vegetables.

Technically, truffles are mushrooms that don’t have stems and are usually discovered under the ground-usually under oak, pine, beech, and pecan trees mostly in Europe including various parts of Italy, France, Slovenia and Croatia. In Asia, some varieties are located in China along with in Middle East while there are also some types native to North Africa.

So far, truffles are used only in the culinary field-as main ingredient to various dishes or as flavoring and garnishes to different specialties. The most frequent gourmet edible truffles that are being employed in various restaurants include the French Black Truffles, the Italian White Truffles, the Chinese Truffles, and the Summer Truffles.

If you are fond of eating truffles and mushrooms generally, here are the some of the health benefits that you are able to expect:

1. It is a good source of high protein. Truffles have high protein content ranging from 20 to 30 percent for each serving. Experts say that truffles are excellent sources of high protein content which it very ideal because these contain all the amino acids necessary to good nutrition for humans. For people who don’t consume fats and carbohydrates- specially to people who are having Western diets-truffles are very ideal since it is a fantastic source of protein.

2. It is in addition a moderate source of carbs. The main element of truffles and mushrooms in the main is carbohydrates derived from glycogen and chitin or also called the fungus cellulose which is a functional proponents of the fungal cell wall. All the same, compared to other vegetables, truffles have lower proportions of carbohydrates. This is in addition very good for people suffering from diabetes because truffles have low value of energy.

3. It is low-fat. As it is vegetable, truffles are ideal for individuals who cannot and do not want to consume too much fat. When dried, it has only about two to eight percent of fat which are mostly crude fat and lipid compounds such as fatty acids, sterols, phospholipids, glycerides and linoleic acid.

4. It is cholesterol free. This is probably the largest benefit to health of truffles. Through the years, cholesterol has been thought to be of the risk aspects of coronary heart conditions and other associated diseases. If you are inclined to stroke or heart attack or you have a family history any heart complaint, it would be great to consume cholesterol free food such as truffles to help you decrease your total cholesterol levels.

Facts and Care for White Ink Tattoos

When you hear people talking about getting a white ink tattoo, they usually mean a design which is in all white ink with no other colours. These tats are typically more subtle than the blaringly loud designs you would get with black ink or coloured marks. A white ink tattoo will more often than not, look more like a scar/brand. It is a great way to get inked in a more private way. These marks are usually only really visible when you deliberately show it someone. It is the best of both worlds. You can have your very personal art, without getting any kind of negative attention at formal gatherings or at work.

Simplicity is key when it comes to white ink tattoos. Keep in mind that your tattoo artist will be working with ink which is a little bit trickier to see. Simplistic art has a solid shot at showing up more clearly than a complicated one. Trendy selections include shooting star tattoos, dragons, writing, key tattoos, Kanji symbols, hearts, and basic tribal patterns. These are so much easier to ink and way less likely to end up as a confusing and disappointing blur. All white tattoos will require to be inked over a few times to make sure the finished pattern is as noticeable as possible. Also, darker coloured skin tends to dampen the brightness of white ink.

With a typical tattoo, the design is usually stenciled in before shading begins. The outlines are done with a dark ink, usually black. This provides a very noticeable pattern the artist uses to keep on track. Tats without any dark ink tend to be a bit more blurred. It is more difficult to follow what you have inked when using only white ink. If a different coloured ink is used with the white, it can result in blended mess.

The ink used is completely different from base white inks which tint other colours. When used as the primary ink, you get a much thicker, top quality mixture which is created solely to stand out as much as it can.

White ink tattoos will lose a portion of their brightness and clarity if they are constantly in the sunshine. If you get this type of design, be sure to keep it out of the sun as much as possible. The easiest way to do this is to get inked in an area which you normally cover up. Your back or chest make for ideal areas. If you normally wear clothes with a bit more cover in the summer, you could also try using your shoulder or just below the ankle. (Keep in mind – any tattoo applied near a bone will hurt more than one that is put on muscle).

If a stencil is used on your white ink tattoo, the artist can either make the outline in your own blood or with purple dye. As a warning, your blood can sometimes tint the ink pink, and the purple can also mix. Your best bet is to have a pro do a simple design without a stencil. Ask your tattoo artist if he or she has much experience with white ink before you let them draw on your skin.

Sometimes people have some bad reactions to white ink. Reactions can also happen with black ink, but they are happen more often with white. Reactions include itching and swelling. In some cases the ink can also turn yellow if it mixes with sweat. As a prevention method, there is nothing wrong with asking for a small sample ink in the area you are aiming to have the full design. This way you be more confident that you will be left with a great tattoo instead of an ugly scar.

As with any ink, if you do not put in the effort to take special care of your new tattoo, you might end up with something that only barely resembles the art you wanted. Don’t scratch or touch the area. Always keep the gauze on for the minimum of 2 hours. Never ever cover up a new tattoo with plastic/saran wrap. Use only lukewarm water, mild liquid antibacterial soap, and your own hands to clean the area. Lightly dab with paper towel to dry it off. Do not put anything like sunscreen or Neosporin over the area. Lastly – take extra care to not let your new tattoo to get too much sunlight until it heals.

Just follow these steps and you will have the best chance of having a clear yet subtle design you can show of to your friends.